Addressing Cyber Security in schools should foster critical digital literacy, such that children can become empowered to make informed decisions about how they choose to use and share information online. eLearning Papers Nº 28 gives answers to questions such as: What constitutes risk when working with digital media? Or where does the potential reside to engage young people in safe Internet use?
The rapidity with which children and young people are gaining access to online, convergent, mobile and networked media is unprecedented in the history of technological innovation. There are two main foci for e–security research that associated with protecting information both strategic and economic and that protecting people particularly the young. While these are overlapping concerns it is the latter that this special issue addresses.
eLearning Papers 28 presents 8 articles arranged in the two sections, In-depth and From the field. The four In-depth articles give a view of the present discussions surrounding how students can be encouraged to engage in safe Internet use. The fourth From the field articles present examples of best practice scenarios.
Click here to read the whole editorial and the 8 articles.
Security in Learning Management Systems: Designing Collaborative Learning Activities in Secure Information Systems
The field of research on information technology applications in the design of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) activities generates very complex scenarios which must be studied from different approaches. One approach is to consider information security, but not only from a technological point of view.
In this paper we argue that current e-learning systems supporting on-line collaborative learning do not sufficiently meet essential security requirements, and this limitation can have a strong influence in the collaborative learning processes. In order to alleviate these problems we have proposed an approach based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) models that offer essential security properties and services in on-line collaborative learning, such as availability, integrity, identification and authentication, access control, confidentiality, non repudiation, time stamping, audit service and failure control.
Media education is an intercurricular subject in Austrian schools, however, it is not a part of teacher’s formal education. Teachers with good digital competencies are much more willing to discuss online safety issues with their students in classes. Therefore, enhancing these skills among teachers will ultimately help to bring these topics into mainstream education. A handful of powerful e-learning tools have been introduced to help teachers familiarise with online safety basics and integrate this topic into their classes.
We have found that reaching out to educators with quality e-learning content on online safety works best in collaboration with reputable providers of teacher training or sites that teachers go to. This ensures that the resources will match their needs as well as guarantee the sustainability of the knowledge base. These conclusions were formulated by Saferinternet.at, the Austrian EU-funded initiative of the Safer Internet Programme for online safety that, among other activities, provides teacher trainings on this topic.
Within the framework of the Safer Internet Program, Latvia organized a Safer Internet Day to bring parents, teachers and young people together to discover the digital world safely. According to current findings, safely means critically, because digital literacy skills are strongly linked to the ability to perform a critical evaluation of online content, which is automatically related to personal safety online.
Research conducted by EU Kids Online in 2010 showed that only 54% of children and young people say they are able and do compare information from different online sources before accepting it as true and trustful. To check this assumption, the Latvian Safer Internet Centre, together with Latvian social networking site Draugiem.lv, set up an experiment to test young people's caution when providing personal information. The findings point to a need for greater measures that address and enhance young people's critical digital literacy.
Estonian children are a demographic that appear in the Top 5, in the EU, as Internet users who both take advantage of new ICT solutions as well as become susceptible to their downsides (various online threats). In this country, coordinated efforts in raising e-safety awareness are relatively recent. Earlier activities were poorly coordinated, lacked continuity and relied mostly on volunteers. During the last few years, the Safer Internet Program in Estonia has added a much-needed coordinating approach.
Our goal is to define the topics that have and have not been covered by the program, identify the program's weaknesses and strengths, analyse its effect, and recommend focuses for future stages. We have analysed the content (study materials and an e-course) created by the project, the experiences of the trainers, and course feedback. Based on these data we have formulated recommendations (from the viewpoints of the project, school management, parents and government) for the next stage of the initiative.
Password-based authentication is used in online web applications due to its simplicity and convenience. Efficient password-based authentication schemes are required to authenticate the legitimacy of remote users, or data origin over an insecure communication channel. Password-based authentication schemes are highly susceptible to phishing attacks.
Phishing attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated and therefore require strong countermeasures, a task complicated by their elusive nature; phishing sites cause damage in a short time span, going online and vanishing. This type of attack is causing a direct damage to the financial industry and is also affecting the expansion of e-commerce. Thus, financial transactions in web applications require highly secure authentication protocols and need countermeasures against phishing in order to make online transactions reliable and secure.
In this paper, we present a survey of different anti-phishing techniques based on several crucial criteria. This study will help in developing different password-based anti-phishing authentication techniques for web applications.
This paper explores the data provided by over 1000 schools in the UK related to their online safety policy and practice. By comparing with data from the previous year, we consider the current state of practice among UK schools and analyse progress over a 12-month period.
What is clear from this analysis is that the aspects that either use technological intervention (i.e. filtering) and policy development are generally performing better than those that require long-term resource investment (such as training) or whole school involvement (such as parental education or community understanding). Monitoring and reporting also perform badly. It is interesting to note that even with an almost double the number of participating establishments, the strongest and weakest performing aspects remain almost constant across 2010 and 2011, with only slight improvement.
The analytical tool used to gather this data is now being used in pilot projects in the US and Australia. Once it is in full use in these regions, detailed analysis of international performance will be available, for the first time. This presents some exciting opportunities to understand at an international level, how schools engage with online safety and ensure protection of their pupils, staff and wider community.
A survey conducted by Save the Children and the Helsinki Virtual Community Policing Group provides insight into the prevalence of the sexual abuse of Finnish children on the internet. The anonymous survey took place in four online communities in 2011. The report presents the results regarding respondents under 16 years old (62% girls, 38% boys), accounting for 54% (2 283) of all respondents.
The focus was on online interaction where the counterpart was an adult or someone clearly older. 33% of the children had received sexual messages, photos or videos experienced as harassing from an adult or someone clearly older; 24 % had entered into discussions of a sexual nature, and 20 % had had a sexual webcam contact with an adult or someone clearly older. 11 % had appeared scantily dressed or naked on webcam. Bearing in mind the restrictions regarding online surveys, the results provide cause for concern. Online sexual abuse of children – whether experienced as harassing or not - appears to be a far-reaching problem requiring determined law enforcement interventions and child protection actions.
There are concerns that the Internet has created new risks for our society and in particular for young people. We argue that the way we frame these risks is affected by the way we view young people, in particular their maturity and ability to make choices for themselves.
A recurrent metaphor concerns the ‘dark-side’ of the Internet which draws on ancient and modern myths about the nature of good and evil. We argue that a knowledge divide between adults and youth has developed concerning the use of digital technologies. Digital natives are able to change the power balance of our society: this threatens the status quo and therefore has created a moral panic.
The key areas of concern for risk include: cyber-bullying, game-playing, social networking, sexual solicitation and addictive behaviours. Although these areas present real risks, we note that young people are moderating their own behaviour as they develop understandings about the possibilities offered by new technologies. The answer to our concerns should not be to seek to control digital technologies, but rather to educate adults and young people about what is possible and appropriate, so that they can choose to become responsible, digital citizens of the 21st century.
Cyber Security and Education
Certain competences have been identified as necessary skills young people should have in order to manage security online. These skills include the ability to adopt a critical use of new media (including the ability to assess sources), understanding how to present oneself online, in terms of privacy, identity and reputation management, and developing responsible and ethical online behaviour. A focus on these competencies signals a shift in teaching ICT in the classroom, providing instruction not only on at how technology works, but also on its use.
An educational approach to Cyber Security means raising student awareness of the risks and consequences of their online practices. It should provide a platform that teaches students to recognize and prevent real risks, such as cyber-bullying, identity theft or sexual harassment, and introduces them to existing risk prevention resources, like the Online Police. While there is consensus on the pressing nature of these risks, incorporating Cyber Security into the curriculum is a new practice, at best. The field is in need of best practice scenarios and in-depth discussions surrounding how students can be encouraged to engage in safe Internet use.
eLearning Papers seeks contributions about Cyber Security for young people and the educational sector in both sections: In-Depth and From the Field. We specifically invite contributions which address one or several of the following issues:
- Useful approaches to online security in curriculum design and teaching practice
- Good practice in Cyber Security
- Teaching, learning and promoting critical digital literacy
- Defining at-risk populations and specific security concerns
- National approaches to online safety; national information society policies or ICT in education policies
- Competences for online safety education
- Safety risks for young people and children (safe behaviour online, privacy issues, cyber-bullying, intellectual property rights, involuntary disclosure, etc.)
The article submission closes on March 23, 2012.
The provisional date of publication is April 20, 2012.
For further information and to submit your article, please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Read the complete call for papers here